It’s been four weeks since I have stepped out of the one-room kitchen apartment in central Mumbai that I live in. Of course, that is if you ignore the few times I have had to go down to collect some stuff that was being home-delivered.
The building that I stay in is right on the road that goes to one end of the Bandra-Worli Sealink, which connects the island city to its suburbs, and given that, it is normally buzzing with some traffic 24/7. But the traffic has been missing over the last few weeks, as Mumbai remains under a lockdown to control the second wave of Covid.
In the silence that surrounds me, I can hear the birds chirping for once, like I could the same time last year. For some reason, the dogs are barking more than they usually do. May be they are not being fed as well as they usually are, as people continue to stay at home.
The ground behind my apartment isn’t noisy anymore with kids and adults not playing cricket. But the sirens of emergency ambulances dashing across the city can be heard loud and clear, any time of the day.
The good part is there is less traffic on the roads, and they can get to the hospitals much faster.
What I can also hear loud and clear is the buzzing of my phone. The SOS cries on Twitter and Facebook have been going up by the day. People have been asking for help, even begging in some cases, for hospital beds, oxygen cylinders and all kinds of medicines.
As more and more cries for help hit social media, the responses seem to be coming down. I guess people are either getting comfortably numb or there is only so much that they can do.
Also, it’s finally hit me that quite a few families living in apartments around me are dysfunctional, perhaps they always were, and have now finally had the time to fight it out and figure it out. Of course, given how close we live to one another, noise travels from one apartment to another.
In all this, the father and son duo, who are my next-door neighbours, continue to play cricket on the verandah, with the father asking the son to bowl just as bowlers bowl in the IPL cricket tournament that is currently on. Who would have thought that IPL would happen during a pandemic and become a moral issue?
But then if capitalism is not a moral issue, what is?
The slumdwellers continue to drag water in buckets placed on a board with wheels, something very peculiar to Mumbai, and very difficult to visualise, unless you have seen it.
The grocery store and vegetable vendor I get my supplies from have become technologically savvy. They now take orders on WhatsApp and accept payments on Google Pay.
And that’s the beauty of capitalism, people adapt to make life easy for others and profitable for themselves. But when they overdo it, it becomes a moral issue.
In one way, everything has changed in the world that I live in. In another, nothing has.
The young guy, living in an apartment below my floor, continues to blast Bruce Springsteen. The Boss is singing Dancing in the Dark.
“Messages keeps gettin’ clearer Radio’s on and I’m movin’ ‘round my place I check my look in the mirror Wanna change my clothes, my hair, my face Man, I ain’t gettin’ nowhere I’m just livin’ in a dump like this There’s somethin’ happenin’ somewhere.”
Each time he gets to singing Man, I’m just tired and bored with myself, I cannot help but wonder why this song hasn’t become an anthem for the times that we live in.
Bored, tired, jaded and hopeless, that’s how I feel right now.
And perhaps so do many others, who are waiting it out.
This piece originally appeared in the Khaleej Times under a different headline.
This piece is an extension of a piece on unemployment I wrote sometime back. Nevertheless, you don’t have to read that piece in order to make sense of this.
Honestly, this is probably the most disturbing data driven piece that I have ever written, despite the fact that I started writing on the issue of unemployment more than half a decade back, when it wasn’t very fashionable to do so.
The brunt of India’s unemployment problem is being borne by women. This is not to say that the men are having an easy time. They aren’t, given that many more men enter the labour force than women.
Nevertheless, the proportion of women who are employed and get paid was low to start with, and it has become even lower over the years. This, at a time, when more and more women are going to school and college.
As the All India Survey of Higher Education for 2018-19 points out: “Total enrolment in higher education has been estimated to be 3.74 crore with 1.92 crore male and 1.82 crore female. Females constitute 48.6% of the total enrolment.” But all this education isn’t helping them find paid employment.
Let’s start with the unemployment rate for men and women. The following chart plots this data since January 2016.
Source: Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy.
The above chart tells us several interesting things.
1)The unemployment rate for women is significantly higher than that of men. In February 2021, the unemployment for women stood at 12.39% whereas for men it stood at 6.23%.
2) The unemployment rate for women in February 2021 is much lower than it was in January 2016, when Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy (CMIE) published the unemployment data for the first time. Have things improved? Keep reading to know the answer.
3)The peak unemployment rate for women during covid was 29.22% as of April 2020. The rate has fallen since to 12.39%, as of February 2021. Again, have things improved?
In order to answer the questions raised above, we need to understand how unemployment is defined. (For those who have read the earlier piece I wrote on unemployment, the next few paragraphs may seem like a repetition, which they are. I have repeated these paragraphs, simply because it is important for every piece to stand on its own, so that first time readers can also read and understand it easily).
A person is categorised as unemployed “because of a lack of job and where such a person is actively looking for a job”. The word to mark here is actively. Hence, a person can be categorised as unemployed only if he doesn’t have a job and is searching for one.
As the Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy (CMIE) puts it, a person categorised as unemployed, “should be unemployed on the date of the survey, should be actively looking for a job in the 100 hundred days (approximately three months) preceding the date of the survey and should be willing to take up the job if a job is found.”
They further point out: “A person is considered to be actively looking for a job if such a person has contacted potential employers for jobs, contacted employment agencies, placement agencies, appeared for job interviews, responded to job advertisements, online employment sites, made applications, submitted resumes to potential employers or reached out to family members, friends, teachers to look for jobs from them.”
To put it in short, waiting for a job offer to come, is not considered as actively looking for a job.
Let’s move on and plot the next two charts, the labour participation rate for men and women.
Source: Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy.
Source: Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy.
Before we interpret these charts, we first need to define what labour participation rate is. Labour participation rate is the ratio of the labour force to the population greater than 15 years of age. And what is the labour force? As per CMIE, labour force consists of persons who are of 15 years of age or more, and are employed, or are unemployed and are actively looking for a job.
Now we are in a position to interpret the above two charts. Let’s do that pointwise.
1)The labour participation rate for women is miniscule on the whole. In February 2021, it stood at 9.42%. What does this mean? It means that a very small proportion of women over the age of 15, are employed and get paid for it or are unemployed and are actively looking for. a job. And the tragic part is that this rate is falling. It was at 17.7% in May 2016. Since then it nearly halved.
2) The labour participation rate of men is considerably higher. It was 67.82% in February 2021, even though it has been falling. Hence, two in three men over the age of 15, are employed and are getting paid for it, or are unemployed and actively looking for a job. For women, this ratio is less than one in ten. That’s the difference between the two sexes and it’s huge.
3)Urban women are in a much worse position on this front. The labour participation rate for urban women stood at 6.56% in February 2021. The rate had peaked at 16.58% in August 2016 and has been falling ever since. What does this mean? It means that it is more difficult for a woman to be employed and get paid, if she is in urban India than in comparison to rural India.
Also, the dramatic fall in the rate since August 2016, tells us that once a woman loses a job or a source of income, it is very difficult for her to get it back. And finally, very few women in urban India are stepping out of their homes to go to work and get paid for it. This has only increased post the spread of covid. The labour participation rate for women was 9.92% in January 2020. It’s not at 6.56%.
4)Now comes the worst part. Between January 2016 and February 2021, the number of women greater than 15 years of age has gone up by 5.41 crore to 49.49 crore. Hence, the number of women who have entered the working age population has gone up by 12.26% (5.41 crore expressed as a percentage of 49.49 crore). On the other hand, the female labour force, has shrunk by 2.75 crore to 4.66 crore. In January 2016, it was at 7.41 crore. This is a collapse of 37% (2.75 crore expressed as a percentage of 7.41 crore).
Let me just repeat this again. While the working age population for women over the last five years has gone up by 12.26%, the female labour force has collapsed by 37.11%. This also explains the fall in unemployment rate for women, given that much fewer women are actively looking for a job. Many women who haven’t been able to find jobs, have stopped actively looking and simply dropped out of the labour force.
Economists have struggled to come up with an explanation for this phenomenon. One possible explanation lies in the fact that the number of jobs available haven’t grown at the pace that could accommodate the new individuals, both men and women, entering the workforce. Hence, in a patriarchal society, men in deciding positions, have offered jobs to other men, forcing women who have searched and not found jobs to stop actively looking for a job and drop out of the labour force altogether.
5)Let’s take a look at the overall population. The working age population, between January 2016 and February 2021, has gone up from 93.85 crore to 105.8 crore, this implies an increase of 11.95 crore. Nevertheless, the number of people employed or unemployed and looking for a job, that is the total labour force, has fallen from 44.76 crore to 42.85 crore, or by 1.91 crore.
So, the working age population has increased by 11.95 crore between May 2016 and February 2021, but the total labour force as such has fallen by 1.91 crore. What does this really mean?
While, the total labour force has shrunk by 1.91 crore, 2.75 crore women have dropped out of it. This basically means that the number of men in the labour force has gone up.
Hence, the brunt of India’s unemployment problem is being borne by women. Women who lose their jobs find it difficult to find a new one and over a period of time simply drop out of the labour force. Many women who enter the labour force and actively look for jobs, are unable to find one and eventually stop searching and drop out of the labour force.
Given that chances of men finding a job are higher, they continue to look for a job and the situation is not as bad as it is for women. Between January 2016 and February 2021, number of men who crossed the age of 15 and entered the working age population, increased by 6.54 crore to 56.30 crore.
During the same time, the number of men entering the labour force (that is either they were employed or were unemployed and actively looking for a job) increased by 83.62 lakh to 38.19 crore. Hence, in this case of men, the labour force at least hasn’t shrunk.
6)Given that more and more women are dropping out of the labour force, it makes it easier for the men who don’t drop out of the labour force to find a job, from the opportunities that come up. (I am using the word easier here and not easy. Kindly appreciate the difference between the two).
7)Urban women are likely to be more educated, but their labour participation rate is very low. Hence, what that means is that they are unable to utilise their education to work and earn money in the process.
8)Now let’s take a look at how things have been post-covid. In January 2020, before covid had struck, the working age population had stood at 103.13 crore. By February 2021, this had jumped to 105.8 crore, a jump of 2.67 crore. Meanwhile, the labour force as of January 2020 stood at 44.24 crore. It has since shrunk to 42.85 crore, by 1.39 crore. So, post-covid, the working age population has gone up by 2.67 crore, but the labour force has shrunk by 1.39 crore.
How have the women done on this front? The working age population post covid for women has gone up by 92.23 lakh whereas the labour force has shrunk by 78.03 lakh. Again, more women have dropped out of the labour force than men, given that the labour force has shrunk overall by 1.39 crore. Also, do keep in mind that the fact that a lower number and proportion of women enter the labour force in the first place.
To conclude, the world celebrated the international women’s day a few days back (on March 8). On that day, the corporates and the government institutions talked about the importance of the women who worked for them. The social media influencers talked about women. Many women talked about what it means for them to be a woman.
But almost none of them talked about one of the most important issues at hand, the fact that Indian women are bearing the brunt of India’s unemployment problem.
If you are reading this(man or woman) please share it with your friends and family. The first step towards solving any problem is knowing and acknowledging that it exists.
Atmanirbharta has been the hot political and economic buzzword in India for quite a while now. It means self-reliance in English. Or as the finance minister Nirmala Sitharaman put it in her budget speech:
“Atmanirbharta is not a new idea. Ancient India was largely self reliant, and equally, a business epicentre of the world. Atmanirbhar Bharat is an expression of 130 crores Indians who have full confidence in their capabilities and skills.”
In economic terms it essentially refers to import substitution, which India practiced for almost four decades, after independence, where the idea was to make everything in the country rather than import it.
In political terms, the narrative is directed towards China and our import dependence on the Middle Kingdom. In the recent past, our political tensions with our largest neighbour have escalated and we are trying to hurt it economically by producing more at home, and not importing as much from it as we had done in the past. Also, we have banned many Chinese apps.
The question is where are we going with atmanirbharta. Let’s take a look at the following chart, which plots the total amount of goods imported from China during the period April to January, over the years.
Source: Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy.
The goods imports from China during the current financial year have been the lowest between 2016-17 and 2020-21, at $51.92 billion. Nevertheless, a simple presentation of goods imports doesn’t take into account the fact that India’s goods imports during April 2020 to January 2021 have fallen by 23.1% to $340.9 billion. They stood at $443.22 during April 2019 to January 2020. This fall shows a lack of consumer demand, which has crashed during the course of the year, with the spread of the covid pandemic.
Let’s look at the next chart, which plots what proportion of India’s goods imports came from China, during the period April to January of a financial year, over the years.
Source: Author calculations on data from Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy.
During April 2020 to January 2021, the proportion of imports coming from China stood at 15.23%. This is the highest in the period considered. Hence, while economic and political narrative maybe moving towards atmanirbharta, the data clearly shows something else. Our dependence on China for goods imports continues, like it was in the past.
There is one more way we can look at data. While we don’t have the full year’s data for 2020-21, we do have that for the years gone by. Hence, we take a look at proportion of full-year imports coming from China, in the next chart.
Source: Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy. *April 2020 to January 2021.
The above chart makes for a very interesting read. In 1991-92, India barely imported anything from China. Just 0.11% came from China. In the nearly three decades that have followed, the imports from China have exploded. This just shows the rise of Chinese productivity year on year, in comparison to that of India. The proportion of imports coming from China peaked at 16.4% in 2017-18, fell for the next two years, and have risen again this year.
As Palit says: “If you look at critical medical supplies, which India has been importing for frontline healthcare workers in the Covid-19 battle, most of these come from China, which is one of the top sources, but, on the other hand, there isn’t a very widely diversified source of countries from which India can actually import these either.”
The larger point here is that China has now become central to many global supply chains and hence, it won’t be easy for India to lower its dependence on China dramatically as far as imports of goods is concerned.
In fact, one area where India has managed to reduce its dependence on China in the last five years, is telecom instruments, as they are categorised in the imports data. Given that the use of landline phones has come down over the years, the category primarily includes mobile handsets.
Take a look at the following chart. It plots the value of the telecom instruments (read mobile handsets) imported from China, over the years.
Source: Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy. *April 2020 to January 2021.
As can be seen, the value of the instruments imported from China has come down over the years, though the 2020-21 full year imports are likely to end up being higher than those in 2019-20. In 2017-18, import of telecom instruments formed a little over a fifth of our imports from China. This fell to 8.67% in 2019-20 and has increased to 10.48% in the current financial year.
To make companies manufacture mobile phones in India, the government has been imposing duties/tarrifs on various goods that go into making of a mobile phone. The idea is to make imports from China expensive and in the process, force companies to manufacture phones in India.
In fact, this strategy has been borrowed from China. As Matthew C Klein and Michael Pettis write in Trade Wars and Class Wars: “Import substitution has succeeded thanks in part to Chinese government policies that have systematically encouraged Chinese businesses to substitute foreign production for domestic production, even when this has raised costs for Chinese consumers.” Of course, unlike India, China does not need to impose duties/tariffs to “direct domestic demand towards domestic production”.
As Klein and Pettis point out: “Executives can simply be told to pick Chinese suppliers over foreign ones… The result is that, unlike many other countries, imports have become less and less important to the Chinese economy since the mid 2000s.”
Also, given that Indian productivity is worse than that of the Chinese, manufacturing in India, comes with a cost. While, mobile handset prices barely rose between 2015 and 2019, the same hasn’t been the case in 2020, when they rose by 7%. Clearly, the cost of atmanirbharta on the mobile handsets front is being borne by the Indian consumer. As I keep saying, there is no free lunch, someone has got to bear the cost.
The government has also come up with the production linked incentive (PLI) scheme in order to help manufacturing companies in India. As Sitharaman said in the budget speech:
“Our manufacturing companies need to become an integral part of global supply chains, possess core competence and cutting-edge technology. To achieve all of the above, PLI schemes to create manufacturing global champions for an Atmanirbhar Bharat have been announced for 13 sectors. For this, the government has committed nearly Rs 1.97 lakh crores, over 5 years starting FY 2021-22. This initiative will help bring scale and size in key sectors, create and nurture global champions and provide jobs to our youth.”
There are multiple problems with this approach. The first being that the government is trying to pick winners. This entire approach smells of how things used to happen before the economic reforms of 1991, with the bureaucrats deciding what businesses should be doing.
Also, this comes at a time when prime minister Narendra Modi has been critical of IAS officers. As he said in February: “Just because somebody is an IAS officer, he is running fertiliser and chemical factories to airlines.” The same babu is now expected to run an incentive scheme for big business.
India’s biggest success stories over the last three decades, software, pharma and automobiles, happened despite the government, and not because of it. So, the idea still should be to make things easier for smaller businesses to grow bigger, which is something that happened beautifully in the IT sector. (This is not to say that the government didn’t help. It did. But it largely didn’t meddle).
In fact, while we think of China as a country with big companies that wasn’t always the case. China’s initial growth in the 1980s and up until the mid 1990s was through the growth of millions of Township and Village Enterprises (TVEs). This is a fact that seems to have been forgotten.
Big companies growing bigger can create some jobs, but not the number of jobs that India requires. As data from the Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy shows, in the last five years India has added 11.77 crore individuals to the working age population.
This means that around 19.76 lakh individuals have crossed the age of 15 on an average every month, over the last five years. Of course, not all of them are looking for jobs but a good chunk are. Even if we assume that around 40% of them are looking for jobs, we end up with around one crore people looking for jobs every year.
Such a huge number of jobs can only be created by small businesses growing bigger and not by big businesses growing bigger, which can only possibly be the icing on the cake.
“SMEs (small- and medium-sized enterprises) account for 60 to 70 per cent of jobs in most OECD countries, with a particularly large share in Italy and Japan, and a relatively smaller share in the United States. Throughout, they also account for a disproportionately large share of new jobs, especially in those countries which have displayed a strong employment record, including the United States and the Netherlands. Some evidence points also to the importance of age, rather than size, in job creation: young firms generate more than their share of employment.”’
In fact, given the obsession the current government has had with scale and formalisation of the economy, small businesses have been hurt through a mind-numbing move like demonetisation and a half-baked goods and services tax.
Further, the globalisation game itself might be changing. While, we might want companies based out of India to become a part of global supply chains, it is worth remembering here that the strategy worked at a certain point of time.
As Krishnan writes:
“China was able to recognize and exploit the opportunities just as global production chains were forming through the opening of the early 1990s… The infrastructure it was able to create through the 1990s enabled ‘a unique and probably unrepeatable combination of low developing country labour costs and good, almost rich country infrastructure.'”
Also, the supply chains that are already in place are not going to shut down and move to India, just because India is now offering incentives. As Apple CEO Tim Cook said in 2017: “The popular conception is that companies come to China because of low labour cost… The reason is because of the skill, and the quantity of skill in one location and the type of skill it is.”
India clearly has a skills problem. A little more than a fifth of Indian graduates are unemployed, and at the same time when companies advertise for personnel, they can’t seem to find enough of them who meet the right criteria. Multiple surveys have found Indian graduates and engineers to be simply unemployable. This is not something that can be set right overnight.
The corporates, not surprisingly, have welcomed the scheme, given that the government is offering “a recurring cash subsidy computed as a fixed percentage of the manufactured sales turnover.” Hence, they clearly have an incentive to do so. In fact, lobbying has already started on this front.
Take the case of the PLI scheme in the electronics and mobile manufacturing, which has been touted as a success, after attracting investments of over Rs 11,000 crore in 2020. As an editorial in The Hindu Business Line points out, the beneficiaries are already asking for a rollover, “citing land acquisition delays, lack of skilled workforce and demand issues post Covid.”
Also, as has been seen in India in the past, once a subsidy is introduced into the government’s budget, it rarely goes away.
Finally, lest I be accused of looking at only negatives (honestly, please go to news.google.com and enter PLI scheme, you will only get positive stories to read), one positive thing could come out of the scheme.
As Palit told Krishnan in the context of China: “When we look at value chains today, let’s say in a post Covid-19 situation, the emphasis on the part of businesses is to make these chains shorter, more resilient, more durable, and locate them closer to demand markets… This is where we often overlook the importance of China. It continues to remain a major source of final demand.” And given this shifting supply chains out of China will be difficult.
This applies to India as well. Given India’s size, it will continue to have a huge source of consumer demand in the years to come. This should encourage companies looking for stable supply chains to have their manufacturing bases in India to cater to its domestic market. And this is where PLI can work its magic.
“From raw materials to critical components, the COVID-19 pandemic exposed the reliance of country’s key sectors on a few markets for fulfilling their manufacturing and sourcing requirements. To put things in perspective, India depends on a single market for 70 per cent of its API consumption needs, 85 per cent of smartphone components imports and 75 per cent of television components imports. As global supply chains were swiftly and effectively dismantled as one country after another went into lockdown in 2020, efforts toward bolstering domestic manufacturing gained momentum.”
Nevertheless, there is a corollary to this. As more and more people get vaccinated and the world moves on and goes back to doing things that it always has, this narrative of having manufacturing facilities closer to the demand markets, will keep getting weaker. Hence, India has a couple of years to cash in on it.
Of course, whether India emerges as a country where the products are assembled or major value addition takes place, remains to be seen. Also, prices will go up. Make in India will come at a cost.
The NSO expects the Indian GDP to contract by 7.7% to Rs 134.4 lakh crore during the year. The GDP is a measure of the economic size of a country and thus, GDP growth/contraction is a measure of economic growth/contraction. Data from the Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy (CMIE) shows that this is the worst performance of the Indian economy since 1951-52.
Let’s take a look at this pointwise.
1)This is the fifth time the Indian economy will contract during the course of a financial year. The last time the Indian economy contracted was in 1979-80, when it contracted by 5.2%, due to the second oil shock.
Before 1979-80, the Indian economy had contracted on three occasions during the course of a year. This was in 1957-58, 1966-67 and 1972-73, with the economy contracting by 0.4%, 0.1% and 0.6%, respectively.
Source: Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy.
Hence, in the years after independence, the Indian economy has seen two serious economic contractions, the current financial year is the second one.
2)One way the GDP of any country is estimated is by summing the private consumption expenditure, investment, government expenditure and net exports (exports minus imports), during the year.
The government expenditure has always been a small part of the Indian economy. It was at 5.6% of the GDP in 1950-51. It has gradually been going up since then. In 2020-21, it formed 13% of the GDP, the highest it has ever been. This tells you the times that we are living in. The government expenditure as a part of the GDP has been going up since 2013-14, when it was at 10% of the GDP. Hence, the government has had to spend more and more money to keep the growth going over the last five to six years.
Given this, while the spread of the covid-pandemic has created a massive economic mess this year, the Indian economy has been slowing down for a while now. This is the broader message that we shouldn’t miss out on, in all the song and dance around the economic recovery.
3)If we leave out the government expenditure from the overall GDP figure, what we are left with is the non-government GDP. This is expected to contract by 9.5% during this year, the worst since 1951-52. What this also tells us is that the non-government part of the economy which will form 87% of the economy in 2020-21, is in a bigger mess than the overall economy.
4)This isn’t surprising given that investment in the economy is expected to contract by 14.5% during the year. What does this mean? It first means that for all the positivity that the corporates like to maintain in the public domain about the so-called India growth story, they clearly aren’t betting much money on it.
As the new twist to the old proverb goes, the proof is in the pudding. During the period October to December, the new investment projects announced, by value, fell by 88%, and the investment projects completed, by value, fell by 72%. This is a period when corporates were talking up the economic recovery big time.
5)It is investments into the economy that create jobs. When the investments are contracting there is clearly a problem on that front. It also leads to the question of what happens to India’s so-called demographic dividend. One fallout of a lack of jobs has been the falling labour force participation rate, especially among women, which in December 2020 stood at just 9.28%. This is a trend that has been prevalent for five years now and Covid has only accelerated it. More and more women are opting out of the workforce.
6)Getting back to corporates. The profitability of Indian corporates went through the roof between July and September. This when the broader economy was contracting. How did this happen? The corporates managed to push up profits by driving down costs, in particular employee cost and raw material cost. While this is corporates acting rationally, it hurts the overall economy.
This means that incomes of those working for corporates and those dealing with them (their suppliers/contractors etc.) have come down. Net net this will hurt the overall economy and will eventually hurt the corporates as well, because there is only so much cost-cutting you can do. Ultimately, only higher sales can drive higher profits and for that the incomes of people need to grow.
7)It is hardly surprising that investments are expected to contract during the year, given that private consumption expenditure, the biggest part of the Indian economy, is expected to contract by 9.5% during the year. Ultimately, corporate investment leads to production of goods and services that people buy and consume, and things on the whole don’t look too good on this front.
In fact, even in 2019-20, the last financial year, the private consumption expenditure had grown by just 5.3%, the worst in close to a decade. This again tells us that while covid has been terrible for the economy, things weren’t exactly hunky dory before that.
8) The final entry into the GDP number is net exports. Typically, this tends to be negative in the Indian case, simply because our imports are much more than our exports. But this year that is not the case with net exports being in positive territory, the first time in four decades. This has added to the overall GDP. But is this a good thing? The exports this year are expected to contract by 8.3% to Rs 25.8 lakh crore. In comparison, the imports are expected to contract much more by 20.5% to Rs 24.8 lakh crore.
What does this tell us? It tells us that the demand for Indian goods in foreign countries has fallen because of covid. At the same time, the contraction of Indian imports shows a massive collapse of demand in India. Non-oil, non-gold, non-silver goods imports, are a very good indicator of consumer demand and these are down 25.3% between April and November this year, though the situation has been improving month on month.
9) There is another way of measuring the GDP and that is by looking at the value added by various sectors. If we were to consider this, agriculture growth during the year remains sturdy at 3.4%. While, this is good news on the whole, it doesn’t do anything to change the fact that close to 43-44% of the workforce is employed in agriculture and contributes just 15% of the economic output.
Come what may, people need to move away from agriculture into professions which add more value to the economy. This hasn’t been happening at the pace it should.
10) The non-agriculture part of the economy, which will form around 85% of the economy this year, is expected to contract by 9.4%, This clearly isn’t good news.
11) Industry is expected to contract by 9.6%. Within industry, manufacturing and construction are expected to contract by 9.4% and 12.6%, respectively. The construction sector is a big creator of jobs, especially jobs which can get people to move away from agriculture. With the sector contracting, the importance of agriculture in the economy has gone up.
12)The services sector is expected to contract by 8.8%. Within this, trade, hotels, transport, storage and communication (all lumped into one, don’t ask me why) is expected to contract by 21.4%. This isn’t surprising given that people continue to avoid hotels and travelling, thanks to the fear of the covid pandemic.
13) The GDP during 2020-21 is expected to be at Rs 134.4 lakh crore. The GDP during 2019-20 was at Rs 145.6 lakh crore. Given this, when it comes to the GDP growth during 2021-22, the next financial year, the low base effect will be at play. Even if the GDP in 2021-22 touches the GDP in 2019-20, we will see a growth of 8.4%. Nevertheless, even with that sort of growth we will be just getting back to where we were two years ago. In that sense, the covid pandemic along with the slow growth seen before that, has put India’s economy back by at least two years.
To conclude, the economy will do much better in the second half of this financial year than the first half. In fact, it already is.
The question is whether this is because of pent up demand or covid induced buying or is a genuine economic recovery already taking place. I guess, there is a little bit of everything happening.
But how strong the economic recovery is, will only become clear in the months to come, as the covid induced buying, and buying because of pent up demand, start to dry out.