In the year 2011-2012 (i.e. the period between April 1, 2011 and March 31, 2012) India produced around 540million tonnes of coal. This was 1.36% more than the amount produced in 2010-2011 (i.e. the period between April 1, 2010 and March 31,2011).
Of the 540million tonnes Coal India produced around 436million tonnes or a little over 80% of the total coal produced in India. The remaining was produced by Singareni Collieries Company and a host of other small companies.
This production wasn’t enough to meet the demand for coal in India. Hence, India also imported 99 million tonnes of coal during the course of the year primarily from countries like Australia, Indonesia and South Africa.
The amount of coal, India has been importing has been growing significantly over the years (as can be seen from the table below). What also comes out clearly is that the amount paid for importing coal grew at a much faster rate than the amount of coal imported between 2003-2004 and 2008-2009. This was the period when the international prices of coal were rallying and touched $190 per tonne in mid 2008.
Coal Imports In Million tonnes In Rupees crore
1999-2000 19.7 3548
2000-2001 20.9 4053
2001-2002 20.5 4536
2002-2003 23.3 5028
2003-2004 21.7 5009
2004-2005 29 10266
2005-2006 38.6 14910
2006-2007 43.1 16689
2007-2008 49.8 20738
2008-2009 59 41341
2009-2010 73.3 39180
2010-2011 68.9 41550
2011-2012 98.9 45723*
*from April-Oct 2011
Source: Provisional Coal Statistics 2011-2012, Coal Control Organisation, Ministry of Coal
Why this was not par for the course
All this would have been par for the course if India did not have enough coal reserves. Like is the case with oil. We don’t have enough known reserves of oil and hence we don’t produce enough oil to meet the demand. So we import oil.
But as numbers for the Geological Survey of India indicate as on April 1, 2012, India had 293.5billion tonnes of coal reserves. These reserves are referred to as geological reserves and are for valid for a depth between 0.9 metres and 1200 metres.
Not all of these reserves can be mined. Open cast mining of coal typically goes to a depth of around 250 metres below the ground level whereas underground mining goes to a depth of around 600-700 metres.
The amount of coal that can be extracted is referred to as extractable reserves. PC Parekh, a retired IAS officer in a presentation puts the extractable reserves at around 60billion tonnes. (You can access the presentation here). A few other experts this writer spoke to said that this number could be significantly higher.
But that’s beside the point. What this clearly tells us is that India has enough coal to mine unlike oil. Given this, India should not be importing the nearly 100million tonnes of coal that it did during the last financial year.
So then why is India not able to mine enough coal? The simple answer is that Coal India which is the biggest producer of coal in the country is not able to produce enough coal. One look at the following table clearly proves that.
Year Production (in million tonnes)
Source: Coal India
Why coal blocks were given away for free
Between 2004-2005 and 2011-2012, the total coal production has increased by 17.5% or at a miniscule rate of 2.3% per year. The slow increase in the production of coal did not help given that India has been second the fastest growing economy in the world for a while now. Hence, the energy needs of the country have been growing as well. This meant greater demand for coal. A study published in 2011 shows that coal is used to meet 40% of India’s energy needs against the global average of 27%.
What did not help was the fact that between 2004-2005 and 2008-2009 there was a rally on in global commodity prices as China expanded at breakneck speech gobbling up commodities from all over the world. Hence, the price of coal shot through the roof. The international price of coal was a little over $20 per metric tonne in mid 2003. It shot up to around $40 per metric tonne in mid 2005 and kept rising after that. Prices shot up to around $190 per tonne internationally in mid 2008.
Given these reasons the government felt that there was a need to look beyond Coal India. In fact, the inability of Coal India to produce enough coal was the main reason why The Coal Mines (Nationalisation) Act 1973 was amended with effect from June 9,1973, to allow the government give away coal blocks for free.
The Economic Survey for 1994-95 points out the reason behind the decision. “In order to encourage private sector investment in the coal sector, the Coal Mines (Nationalisation) Act, 1973 was amended with effect from June 9, 1993 for operation of captive coal mines by companies engaged in the production of iron and steel, power generation and washing of coal in the private sector,” the survey points out.
The total coal production in the country in 1993-94 stood at 246.04million tonnes having grown by 3.3% from 1992-93. The government understood that the production was not going to increase anytime soon because the newer projects were having time delays and cost overruns. As the 1994-95 economic survey put it “As on December 31,1994, out of 71 projects under implementation in the coal sector, 22 projects are bedeviled by time and cost over-runs. On an average, the time overrun per project is about 38months.There is urgent need to improve project implementation in the coal sector”.
Even though the decision to give away coal blocks for free came into effect in 1993, nothing much happened till 2004. Between 2005 and 2009, the government of India gave away 149 coal blocks for free. This was also the time when the global rally in coal prices was on and the Indian demand for coal was also on its way up. The conclusion that one can draw from this is that before 2004 it was cheap for a company to import coal because international coal prices were low. But after that things changed and it made more sense for companies to have direct access to coal.
But giving away the coal blocks for free did not solve any problem. As per the report prepared the Comptroller and Auditor General of India, as on March 31, 2011, eighty six of these blocks were supposed to produce around 73million tonnes of coal. Only 28 blocks have started production and their total production has been around 34.6million tonnes, as on March 31,2011.
Why Coal India cannot increase production at a faster rate
In all this, the question that nobody seems to be asking is that why is Coal India not able to produce enough coal? It has probable reserves of around 18.9billion tonnes, but is still unable to expand production at a higher rate.
If I was a television journalist I would say that Coal India has been unable produce more simply because it is inefficient like most Indian public sector companies. But the truth is a lot more complicated than that. And it to a large extent explains why the government’s decision of giving away coal blocks for free hasn’t worked.
India’s coal reserves are largely concentrated in the middle of the country in the states of Jharkhand, West Bengal, Odisha, Madhya Pradesh, Chattisgarh, Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh. There are some reserves in the North East as well, but they are at best miniscule. It does not help that the states that have the biggest coal reserves are also dealing with naxalite problem. Hence operating in these regions isn’t very easy.
A lot of the coal reserves are also in regions categorized as forest areas and getting clearances from the state governments isn’t always easy. What also has not helped is that the Ministry of Environment and Forests which gives the overall environment clearance isn’t known to be terribly efficient. As NC Jha told Times of India at the beginning of the year “Our 168 projects are pending environment and forest clearances at the Centre and State levels. Sixty-seven of these projects are greenfield and we are unable to make any investment in these. Remaining are ongoing expansion schemes, which too have been stalled.” Jha was the Chairman of Coal India at that point of time.
But these are small problems. The biggest problem facing Coal India is acquisition of land. The right to property is not a fundamental right in India. And over the years the government of India has acquired land forcibly from the citizens of this country at rock bottom prices. In the city of Ranchi, where this writer grew up, original landholders have still not been paid after their land was acquired to set up what was then one of the biggest public sector units in India.
Attempts to rehabilitate people whose land is acquired by the government, is rarely made. The homes built for this people are unlivable to say the least in a lot of cases. Hence, people resist to hand over their land, their only source of income.
Given this attitude of the government of India over the years the issue has become politicised. Hence, the state governments are not interested because by forcibly acquiring land they are likely to lose votes.
Due to these same reasons giving away coal blocks for free hasn’t worked and will not work. 193 out of the 195 coal blocks that government has given away for free are in the states of Jharkhand, West Bengal, Odisha, Madhya Pradesh, Chattisgarh and Maharashtra. All these states have a naxalite problem and that will effect the private and other government players as much as it has been impacting Coal India. The government’s environmental policy and the land acquisition policy continue to remain in a mess.
What also does not help is the fact that the expertise required to get a coal mine up and running is largely limited to Coal India. Mining coal isn’t exactly as easy as digging a tube-well.
In order to get a block up and running, companies need to prepare a mine plan, carry out the environmental impact study (EIS) of the area etc. The EIS essentially looks at what the current environment of the area is like, how mining coal will change that and what can be done to ensure that the current environment can be maintained. For Coal India this planning is done by Central Mine Planning and Design Institute (CMPDI), a 100% subsidiary. Such expertise is not easily available in the private sector.
Coalgate is not a problem that emerged overnight. It is a problem created by the various Congress governments (given that the party has ruled the country for the most part since independence) over the years. This led to the Congress led UPA government giving away coal blocks for free to ensure that India produces more coal. But that is a problem that remains and will remain.
All data unless otherwise stated has been sourced from Provisonal Coal Statistics, 2011-2012, Coal Controller’s Organisation, Ministry of Coal.
(The article originally appeared on www.firstpost.com on September 11,2012. http://www.firstpost.com/business/why-giving-away-coal-blocks-for-free-was-never-a-solution-450915.html#disqus_thread)
(Vivek Kaul is a writer. He can be reached at [email protected])
If you are the kind who reads the pink papers religiously, you would have come to conclusion by now that good times are back again for the stock market investors in India, now that the finance minister has deferred the implementation of GAAR to next year. But before you open that champagne bottle and say cheers, here are some reasons why the stock market will remain flat or fall in the days to come.
Pain in Spain:
The gross domestic product (GDP) of Spain grew at the rate of 8% every year from 1999 to 2008. This primarily happened because Spain went all out and promoted the Mediterranean lifestyle. As Jonathan Carman points out in a presentation titled The Pain in Spain “Millions flocked to its sun-drenched shores, buying houses along the way. As the demand for houses increased, construction became the industry. Housing prices exploded, tripling in just over a decade.”
So far so good. The trouble was Spain ended up building way too many homes than it could sell. Even though Spain forms only 12% of the GDP of the European Union (EU) it has built nearly 30% of all the homes in the EU since 2000. As John Mauldin and Jonathan Tepper point out in Endgame – The End of the Debt Supercycle and How It Changes Everything “Spain had the mother of all housing bubbles. To put things in perspective, Spain now has as many unsold homes as the United States, even though the United States is six times bigger”.
All this building was financed through the bank lending. Loans to developers and construction companies amounted to nearly $700billion or nearly 50% of the Spain’s current GDP of nearly $1.4trillion. With homes lying unsold developers are in no position to repay. And Spain’s biggest three banks have assets worth $2.7trillion or that is double Spain’s GDP.
What makes the situation more precarious is the fact that the housing prices are still falling. Carman expects prices still need to fall by 35% from their current levels if they are to reach normal levels. This will mean more home loan defaults and more trouble for Spain. The Spanish stock market is already taking this into account and IBEX-35, the premier stock market index of the country is down a little more than 10% in the last one month. Banking stocks have fallen much more.
While countries like Greece may be in more trouble, they are not economically big enough to cause a lot of trouble worldwide. But if Spanish banks go bust, there will be a lot of trouble in the days to come. Spain has now emerged the basket case of Europe, but other countries in the European Union are not doing well either and this means trouble for China.
China’s After Party:
If things are not well in Europe, it has an impact on China because Europe is China’s biggest trading partner. The Chinese exports to Europe in March were down 3.1% in comparison to last year. Chinese exports had ranged between $475billion and $518billion in the last three quarters of 2011. In the first three months of this year the number has fallen to $430million. Falling exports are not the best news for China.
There are other things which aren’t looking good either. As Ruchir Sharma writes in Breakout Nations – In Pursuit of the Next Economic Miracles “In the last decade the main driver of China’s boom was a surge in the investment share of the GDP from 35% to almost 50%, a level that is unprecedented in any major nation…The investment effort focused on building the roads, bridges, and ports needed to turn China into the world’s largest exporter, doubling its global export market share to 10% in the last decade.”
This spending spree which was responsible for its fast growth is now slowing down. New road construction is down from 5000miles in 2007 to 2500 miles. Railway spending is down by 10%.
The other major factor likely to pull down growth is wage inflation i.e. salaries are rising at a very fast rate. In 2011, the average wage was rising at a rate of 15%, in a scenario where the consumer price inflation was around 5%. As Sharma points out “In fact hourly wages are now rising twice as fast productivity, or hourly output per worker, which is forcing companies to raise prices just to cover the cost of higher wages.” This has led to manufacturers moving to cheaper destinations like Bangladesh and Indonesia.
Given these reasons it is highly unlikely that China will continue to grow at the rates that it has been. Since 1998, China’s economic growth has averaged around 10% and it has never fallen below 8%. As Sharma points out “China’s looming shadow is about to retreat to realistic dimensions.” Sharma expects Chinese growth to slowdown by 3-4% percentage points in comparison to its current growth rate over the next decade.
A Chinese slowdown will mean disaster for nations which have been thriving by exporting commodities to China. In 1998, when China was a $1trillion economy, to grow by 10% meant it had to expand its economy by $100billion. This could have been done by consuming 10% of the world’s industrial commodities, raw materials like oil, steel and copper. In 2011, China is a $6trillion economy. If this economy needs to grow by 10% or $600billion, more than 30% of the world’s commodity production would be needed. With growth slowing down, China’s commodity requirements will come down as well. As Sharma puts it “It’s my conviction that China – commodity connection will fall apart soon”.
China’s stock markets remain largely closed to international investors. But the Hang Seng index listed in Hong Kong has a lot of Chinese companies. This index has gone up 0.9% over the last one month.
The Kangaroo Won’t Jump:
In fact the Aussies are already feeling the heat with a slowdown in Chinese exports. Australian exports to China in 2011 stood at A$72billion (Australian dollar), up 24% from 2010, or around 26% of total exports. An ever expanding China bought coal, iron ore and natural gas from Australia, driving up Aussie exports. But exports for the month of February fell to A$24.4 billion, the lowest in an year. Coal exports were down by 21% to A$3.4billion. The S&P ASX/200 one of the premier stock market indices in Australia, has been flat for the last one month.
Brazil – God’s Own Country:
The rise of China has led to huge demand for Brazilian commodities. As Gary Dorsch an investment newsletter writer points out in a recent column “Brazil has been enjoying an economic boom based on soaring prices for its natural resources including crude oil, agricultural products, such as soybeans, corn, and cattle, and metals such as iron ore and bauxite-aluminum.”
The rise of Brazil was captured very well by Glenn Stevens, governor of the Reserve Bank of Australia. Stevens pointed out that in 2006, money received from shipload of iron ore could buy 2,200 flat screen TVs. In 2011, the same shipload could buy 22,000 flat screen TVs.
Since the start of the financial crisis a lot of money printed by Western governments to revive their economies has flowed into Brazil. This has driven up the value of the real, the currency of Brazil, and made Brazil one of the most expensive countries in the world. As Sharma points out “Restaurants in Sao Paulo are more expensive than those in Paris. Hotel rooms cost more in Rio than French Riviera”.
An expensive currency has meant that imports rising faster than exports. This situation is expected to get worse as China’s slowdown and the demand for Brazilian commodities falls. In fact the impact is already being felt. As Dorsch points out “Brazil’s economy stalled out in the past two quarters, showing near zero growth in Q’3 of 2011 and Q’4 of 2012. Factory output in February was -3.9% lower than a year ago.” The premier stock market index Bovespa is down 4.5% over the last one month.
On a totally different note the most popular television serial in Brazil is a soap opera called “A Passage to India” shot in Agra and Jodhpur and which has Brazilian actors playing Indian roles and as Sharma puts it, they could “pass easily for North Indians”.
India- Done and Dusted:
The economic problems of India deserve a separate article. But let me list a few. In the year 2007-2008 (i.e. between April 1, 2007 and March 31,2008) the fiscal deficit of the government of India stood at Rs 1,26,912 crore. Fiscal deficit is the difference between what the government earns and what it spends. For the year 2011-2012 (i.e. between April 1, 2011 and March 31, 2012) the fiscal deficit is expected to be Rs 5,21,980 crore.
Hence the fiscal deficit has increased by a whopping 312% between 2007 and 2012. During the same period the income earned by the government has gone up by only 36% to Rs 7,96,740 crore. The targeted fiscal deficit for 2012-2013 is Rs 5,13,590 crore. This is likely to go up given the fact that the rupee is depreciating against the dollar and thus our oil bill is likely to go up, pushing up our fiscal deficit. This would mean that higher interest rates will continue to prevail.
The stock market obviously realizes this and hence has fallen by 1.8% over the last one month, yesterday’s brief rally notwithstanding.
Over the last few years stock prices all across the world have moved in a synchronized fashion because the international investors like to move in a herd. Whenever there has been trouble in the United States or Europe it has led to emerging markets all across the world falling. Now we are in a situation where the emerging markets themselves are in a lot of trouble. So it is a no brainer to say there will be no rally in the stock market in the near future. Unless of course a certain Mr Ben Bernanke decides to open up the money tap again and go in for Quantitative Easing Round Three or to put it in simple English, print some more dollars. If that happens, then investors can get ready to have some fun.
(This article was originally published on May 8, 2012 at http://www.firstpost.com/economy/the-pain-in-spain-will-get-us-too-so-forget-market-rallies-302278.html. Vivek Kaul is a writer and can be reached at [email protected])
“Did I say I’ll be back, when I left?” I asked.
“No,” she replied. “’You just said, this is the end my beautiful friend.”
“Ah! Jim Morrison had me doped.”
“Never mind,” she said. “Hope this time you are back for good.”
“That time will tell,” I replied cheekily.
“You are still as fickle minded as the stock market.”
“Well, there is clearly some logic in the way the stock markets operate. Just that it is not obvious to everyone.”
“Ah. There you go V, blowing your own trumpet!”
“Let me explain.”
“Please go ahead.”
“Let’s start with Spain where all the trouble seems to be concentrated these days. There benchmark index IBEX 35 is down around 10% since the beginning of this year and is down 30% over the last one year.”
“Their banks are in big trouble. The stock price of their biggest bank Banco Santander has fallen 18% over the last one month and 45% over the last one year.”
“But why?” she interrupted again.
“Spain had the mother of all housing bubbles! It currently has as many unsold homes as the United States (US), even though the US is six times bigger than Spain.”
“Oh! I didn’t know that.”
“Yes. And even though Spain contributes only 12% of the gross domestic product of the European Union it accounted for 30% of all homes built in the EU since the turn of the century.”
“And all this construction must have been financed by loans from banks?”she asked.
“Yes. Loans to developers and construction companies amount to nearly 50% of the $1.4trillion Spanish gross domestic product (GDP). Of course, with homes lying unsold developers cannot repay their loans and this means the banks are in trouble. And Spain’s banks are too big. In fact the asset size of the three biggest banks in Spain is around $2.7trillion, twice of their GDP,” I explained.
“So if banks go bust, Spain goes bust!”
“Exactly! And Spain is not the only country in trouble. Other European countries are not doing too well either. This has an impact on China because Europe is China’s biggest trading partner. Exports to Europe in March were down 3.1% in comparison to last year. Chinese exports had ranged between $475billion and $518billion in the last three quarters of 2011. In the first three months of this year the number has fallen to $430million. The Shanghai Composite, China’s leading stock market index fell by 6.8% in the month of March.”
“So a slowdown in Europe is having an impact on China?”
“Yes madam! Profits of Chinese companies were also down for the first two months of 2012.”
“So a slowdown in Europe, slows down China. What happens next?” she enquired.
“That in turn has an impact on Australia. Australian exports to China in 2011 stood at A$72billion (Australian dollar), up 24% from 2011. Now around 26% of Australian exports are to China. An ever expanding China bought coal, iron ore and natural gas from Australia, driving up Aussie exports. But exports for the month of February fell to A$24.4 billion, the lowest in an year. Coal exports were down by 21% to A$3.4billion.”
“All because of a slowdown in China,” she concluded.
“Yes. The other country which has suffered because of a slowdown in China is Brazil, which has been enjoying an economic boom to a huge demand for crude oil and agricultural products. A slowdown in China impacts any commodity exporting country because prices tend to fall as China consumes less. But that is not the only reason by Brazil’s exports have fallen.”
“So what is the major problem?”
“The major problem is an appreciating Brazilian currency. The central banks of United States, Japan and Great Britain have been running zero interest policies, in the hope of reviving their own economies. But what this has done is that international investors have been borrowing in these countries and taking the money into emerging markets like Brazil to invest there. When they come to Brazil with their dollars, they need to sell those dollars and buy the Brazilian real. This leads to an increase in demand for Brazilian real and hence the value of the real appreciates against the dollar, which in turn means that the Brazilian exports become expensive. Hence, the Brazilian Bovespa, the premier stock market index of Brazil has fallen 7.4% over the last one month,” came a long explanation from my end.
“Interesting, the way it’s all linking up!”
“So Europe slows down leading to China slowing down and then Australia slows down as well. Brazil slows down because of China and the United States. In the United States elections are due in November this year. If Obama is re-elected tax on long term capital gains could increase to 20% and income tax rates are also likely to rise as tax cuts initiated George Bush junior may be allowed to expire. The stock market of course won’t like this.”
“But what about India?”
“Do I need to say anything? We are in a big mess to say the least! And the state of the Indian stock market is largely decided by the foreign investors. If they are not feeling good about things, the Indian stock market will not go anywhere. In the last one month the BSE Sensex has been almost flat.”
“Hmmm. As my former boss used to ask, so what is the takeaway?” she asked.
“Things are not looking good all over the world.”
“So, is there any hope?”
“Yup, there always is. Ben Bernanke may come to the rescue with another round of money printing, technically now called quantitative easing. That is possible because it is an election year in America, and past Chairman of the Federal Reserve have helped incumbent Presidents fighting elections by running an easy money policy before elections. This money could find its way into stock markets around the world and juice up returns,” I replied.
“But that may or may not happen. So what does one do now?”
“An old stock market saying goes “sell in May, go away! It is time to change that to April!”
(Vivek Kaul is a writer and can be reached at [email protected])
(The article appeared in the Daily News and Analysis on April 23,2012. http://www.dnaindia.com/analysis/column_sell-in-may-oops-april-and-go-away_1679339)
Endgame – The End of Debt Supercycle and How it Changes Everything, John Mauldin and Jonathan Tepper, John Wiley &Sons. 2011
Minefields that can Blow-up Global Stock markets in 2012, Gary Dorsch, April 12, 2012, www.sirchartsalot.com